Python Proxy Class Implementation with Type Hints

What will you learn?

In this tutorial, we will delve into creating a Python proxy class using type hints. By the end of this guide, you’ll be equipped with the knowledge to develop a proxy class that enhances code readability and maintainability through type hints.

Introduction to the Problem and Solution

When working with Python, there are scenarios where having a proxy class can act as a powerful intermediary between client code and actual objects. This intermediary can facilitate various functionalities like logging, access control, lazy initialization, etc. Leveraging type hints not only enhances the clarity of your codebase but also enables effective utilization of static analysis tools.

To address this problem effectively, we will define a proxy class that mirrors all methods from the original class while incorporating additional behaviors or customizations. By utilizing type hints to clearly specify method signatures, developers interacting with the proxy class will find it easier to understand and work with.


from typing import Any

class Proxy:
    def __init__(self, obj: Any):
        self._obj = obj

    def __getattr__(self, name: str) -> Any:
        attr = getattr(self._obj, name)

        # Additional behavior or customizations can be added here

        return attr

# Example usage
class OriginalClass:
    def some_method(self):
        return "Hello from OriginalClass!"

original_obj = OriginalClass()
proxy_obj = Proxy(original_obj)

print(proxy_obj.some_method())  # Output: Hello from OriginalClass!

# Copyright PHD


The Proxy class defined above takes an object obj in its constructor and internally stores it. The __getattr__ method intercepts attribute access on instances of our proxy class. Within this method, we retrieve attributes from the original object (self._obj) using getattr() function.

By incorporating necessary behaviors within __getattr__, such as logging before/after method calls or enforcing access control rules dynamically based on user permissions, we can seamlessly extend functionality without altering the original class.

Type hints are employed in defining parameters (name: str) and return types (-> Any) to enhance clarity regarding expected inputs and outputs of methods at each stage.

    1. How does a Python proxy class differ from subclassing? A Python proxy allows you to control access to another object without directly modifying its interface. Subclassing involves creating a new derived class with altered behavior or attributes.

    2. Can I modify attributes of an object through a proxy? Yes, by implementing setter methods within your Proxy class along with appropriate checks or logic.

    3. Is it possible to cache results using a proxy pattern? Certainly! You can introduce caching mechanisms inside your proxy implementation as required.

    4. What are some common use cases for a Python proxy pattern? Common use cases include logging requests/responses before forwarding them onwards or dynamically controlling access permissions based on user roles.

    5. How do proxies contribute to code maintainability? Proxies aid in separating concerns by delegating specific tasks such as error handling or performance optimization outside core business logic.


By mastering the creation of a Python proxy class with type hints, you elevate code maintainability by enabling transparent interception of method calls while retaining strong typing information throughout development cycles. This understanding empowers you to construct robust software architectures that effortlessly support scalability and extensibility.

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